Articles | Volume 18, issue 1
31 Dec 1967
 | 31 Dec 1967

Vegetationsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen an cromer-zeitlichen Ablagerungen im nördlichen Randgebiet der deutschen Mittelgebirge.

Eberhard Grüger

Abstract. The biostratigraphic classification of the Pleistocene in northwestern and central Europe is still unsufficiently known, in spite of numerous geological and vegetation-history investigations. The question is not even clear, for example, how often a warm-period vegetation with thermophilous trees such as Quercus, Ulmus, Tilia, Carpinus etc. could develop here. In past years, on the basis of several geological and vegetation-history findings, suspicion has often been expressed that some of the classical stages of the Pleistocene could include more warm periods than heretofore assumed, and as a result of recent investigations the period between the Waal and Holstein interglacials seems to include at least two warm periods, of which the Cromer is one. This paper contributes to this problem. The interglacial sediments coming from the Elm-Mountains near Brunswick and from the Osterholz near Elze — both within the limits of the German Mittelgebirge — were investigated by pollen analysis. In both cases a Pinus-Betula zone and a QM zone were found. The vegetation development of the Pinus-Betula zone is characterized in both sequences by the early appearence of Picea. Because of strong local influence at the Osterholz a detailed correlation is difficult. However, vegetation development at the time of the QM zone at both sites was similar; it is especially characterized by the facts that Ulmus clearly migrated to the site earlier than Quercus and was very abundant throughout this time. Furthermore, both diagrams show very low amounts of Corylus. The interglacial from the Osterholz shows in addition to the above, a Carpinus-QM-Picea-zone in which Eucommia reaches a relative high value and in the upper part of which Azolla filiculoides was also found. The similarity of vegetation development justifies acceptance of the same age for the occurences. A comparison of the vegetation development at the Elm and the Osterholz with those of the Eem, Holstein, Waal, and Tegelen warm periods as well as with all the Cromer sites so far investigated shows that only a correlation with the Cromer Complex is possible. This correlation is supported by the geologic relations in the Osterholz (the deposit is overlain by Elster till). Therefore the till-like material with Scandinavien rock fragments underlying the deposit at Elm is of particular interest. The "Rhume" interglacial beds at Bilshausen, only 60 km south of Osterholz, is also assigned to the Cromer complex, but the two deposits cannot be of the same age because the vegetation development differs. Therefore the Cromer complex must include at least two warm periods. Further conclusions about the relative stratigrapnic position of these two occurences and correlations of other Cromer sites are at this time not possible, however.